Galungan is a Balinese holiday celbrating the victory of dharma over adharma.It marks the time when the ancestral spirits visit the Earth. The lasday of the celebration is Kuningan, when they return. The date is calculated according to the 210-day Balinese calendar.
Galungan marks the beginning of the most important recurring religious ceremonies. The spirits of deceased relatives who have died and been cremated return to visit their former homes, and the current inhabitants have a responsibility to be hospitable through prayers and offerings. The most obvious sign of the celebrations are the penjor - bamboo poles weighed down by offerings suspended at the end. These can be seen by the side of roads. A number of days around the Kuningan day itself have special names, with particular activities being organized.
Galungan begins on the Wednesday (Buda) of Dunggulan, the 11th week of the 210-day pawukon calendar. This means that there are often two celebrations per solar year. Dates for 2012-2014 are as follows:
Every 210 days the Balinese people decorate their streets with ornate penjor and visit their special temples to celebrate Galungan and Kuningan. During this religious holiday Bali comes alive with vibrant colours, the air is filled with the rapid rhythms of Gamelan orchestras and families work hard to prepare wonderful offerings. This holiday is the most special and important time in Bali, but why do the Balinese celebrate Galungan and Kuningan?
According to the tradition Balinese people believe that their Gods return to earth on Galungan, stay for 10 days, and then leave on Kuningan. Galungan means “When the Dharma is winning” and implies a positive time in the Balinese calendar. This occurs every 210 days in the Balinese cycle of days, otherwise known as pawukon.
The Gods must be appropriately welcomed this is why so much time and effort is put into making sure everything is decorated beautifully, offerings called banten are prepared, music is played and prayers are practiced in the most sincere way possible. It is important that the Balinese people return to thekampung (village of birth) to join in the celebrations.
The first day of Galungan starts with an early visit to the temple to pray to their Gods for good luck and well-being. Before temple the men must wake up to slaughter the pig that is the main ingredient for the feast, it is spit roasted and then used for lots of different dishes including sate and lawar (a dish made of pork, jack fruit, chili and pigs blood), other foods include rice cakes and a wide selection of fruit. When the feast is over family and friends sit around talking and playing games, the men might even drink home brewed alcohol called arak. The feast for kuningan is very similar but the rice must be yellow.
Happy Galungan 2011 to all those living in Bali.
foto source 123rf (foto not for adv or promo,just for knowledge)
which falls on Wednesday, Buda Kliwon Sinta (Balinese Calendar), is the third most celebrated holidays in Bali after Galungan and Nyepi Day. Balinese Hindus celebrate Pagerwesi every six months (210 days) according to the pawukon calendar systems. Pagerwesi derived from words “pager (fence)” and “wesi (iron)”, simply “iron fence”, is a day to strengthen one’s fortification against evil.
Pagerwesi is dedicated to honour Siva, the God manifestation as Hyang Pramesi Guru (the main Guru), and has a very close relationship with Saraswati day. It falls three days after Saraswati day, and there’s continuity meaning between them. In Pagerwesi people honour the main Guru (God or Siva) that transferred knowledge during Saraswati day. It also means that the knowledge must be protected from bad influences and misuse.
If we are looking back to the roots of Hinduism in Bali, which was originated from India, there is a similar ceremony called Guru Puja or Guru Purnima. The Indians, however, celebrate it in a very different way and day. They celebrate Guru Puja on Purnama Kasa or the first new moon every year. Pagerwesi reminds human to be wise and more aware to the function and power of knowledge.
During pagerwesi, Balinese held Tapa Brata (Semadhi) to refresh and calming their mind, at this day also will held a ritual procession with pray at nearest temple. If able Balinese people will held the pray at big temple like Besakih or Jagatnata, but if they was unable because must work or do some other job, the pray can be held on the night on their own home temple. Some people meaning this day by it’s name Pagerwesi (Pager = fence, Wesi = iron), known as the day to protect ourself from all negative element, by semadhi and pray to the god to refresh the mind.